Discours de l’ambassadrice Roger-Lacan au Comité économique et environnemental (16 décembre 2015)
Excellences, Ladies and Gentlemen,
Let me in at the outset express my gratitude to the Serbian Chairmanship as well as the Greek Chairmanship of the Economic and Environmental Committee for organizing this meeting dedicated to climate change in a very timely manner, a few days only after the end of the 21st Conference of the Parties that was held in Paris.
It provides us with a very good opportunity to address the EEC on the outcome of COP 21.
The Paris agreement reached on 12 December is historical : for the first time, a universal and legally binding agreement based on the historic, current and future responsibilities of the nations has been agreed.
It covers all the crucial areas identified as essential for a landmark conclusion :
• A transparency system and global stock-take
• Adaptation - strengthening ability to deal with the impacts of climate change
• Loss and damage – strengthening ability to recover from climate impacts
• Support /finance
Let me highlight some of these points :
The universal agreement’s main aim is to keep a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius and to drive efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
As well as setting a long-term direction, countries will peak their emissions as soon as possible and continue to submit updated climate plans – called nationally determined contributions (NDCs) – every five years. The new agreement also establishes the principle that future national plans will be no less ambitious than existing ones, which means the 188 climate action plans that have so far been submitted provide a firm floor and foundation for higher ambition.
2. Transparency system
The agreement includes a robust transparency framework for both action and support. The framework will provide clarity on countries’ mitigation and adaptation actions, as well as the provision of support. At the same time, it recognizes that Least Developed Countries and Small Island Developing States have special circumstances.
The agreement includes a global stocktake starting in 2023 to assess the collective progress towards the goals of the agreement. The stocktake will be done every five years.
The agreement also includes a compliance mechanism, overseen by a committee of experts that operates in a non-punitive way.
The efforts of developing countries to build their own clean, climate-resilient futures will be supported by scaled-up finance from developed countries and voluntary contributions from other countries.
Governments decided that they will work to define a clear roadmap on ratcheting up climate finance to USD 100 billion by 2020 while also before 2025 setting a new goal on the provision of finance from the USD 100 billion floor.
International cooperation on climate-safe technologies and building capacity in the developing world to address climate change are also significantly strengthened under the new agreement.
Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement by the COP (Conference of the Parties), it will be deposited at the UN in New York and be opened for one year for signature on 22 April 2016—Mother Earth Day.
The agreement will enter into force after 55 countries that account for at least 55% of global emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification.
To us, the conclusion of the Paris agreement also represents an important contribution to international peace and security. Indeed, climate risks are viewed as a core development challenge that carries potentially serious implications for regional stability, international peace and security. Growing competition over access to resources, populations displacement, or the multiplication of natural disasters are some of the risks triggered by climate change that will increasingly affect security at all levels. The OSCE region is already facing the impact of climate change, if we recall for instance the socio-economic impact of the floods in the Balkans or the tensions that arise from the diminishing water resources in Central Asia.
In this context, and given its comprehensive and co-operative definition of security, we believe the OSCE has a major role to play in recognizing and addressing the specific security implications of climate change in its region.
1) Its broad approach of security allows for a global understanding of the challenges and threats posed to the stability and security in its region and beyond. The OSCE is a security oriented organization – it is therefore in its mandate to see the security implications of climate change that already affects our lives right now.
2) The OSCE represents a huge platform of dialogue – an inclusive platform and the largest regional organization “from Vancouver to Vladivostok”. Its heterogeneous membership allows for a wide forum of discussion with all types of actors : member states, international organization, civil society... We need to take advantage of this platform to foster the political dialogue necessary to collectively succeed in combating the impacts of climate change. The COP21 created a political momentum for everybody – we need to support this momentum and to associate our efforts to those of other international and regional organization (EU, NATO, UN…) to collectively contribute to the implementation of the Paris agreement.
3) The OSCE has achieved over the past decades an impressive field experience in various regions challenged by different types of crises - activities ranging from education, to conflict prevention and democratization including environmental and gender equality issues. All these field experiences provide the OSCE with the capacity to act in a comprehensive and coherent manner based on concrete cooperation between participating States. The OSCE can make use of its toolbox for conflict prevention and management in tackling climate change risks and continue to support discussions on key environmental issues such as water management and green economy development.
4) Last but not least OSCE has accompanied many governments in their democratization processes and reforms for better governance. Democratic governance is the bedrock of the OSCE’s system of values and standards. Strengthening governance and consolidating weak states and fragile societies could allow to systematically mainstreaming climate change and environment-related issues into public policies implemented throughout the OSCE area.
5) Finally, whilst accompanying governments in their democratization processes and reforms for better governance, the OSCE can help to mainstream climate change and environment-related issues into public policies.
For all these reasons, France advocates for a better consideration of the climate change and its related issues from a security perspective in the OSCE. We count on the incoming chairmanships to continue the debates on this in our view very important thematic.